Anesthesia Emergencies includes appropriate step by step info on tips to observe, deal with, and deal with problems and emergencies through the perioperative interval. Concisely written, highlighted sections on speedy administration and probability elements make stronger crucial issues for simple memorization, whereas constant association and checklists offer ease of studying and readability. Anesthesia services will locate this booklet an integral source, describing evaluation and therapy of life-threatening occasions, together with airway, thoracic, surgical, pediatric, and cardiovascular emergencies. the second one variation features a revised desk of contents which offers issues so as in their precedence in the course of emergencies, in addition to new chapters on obstacle source administration and catastrophe medicine.
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Extra info for Anesthesia Emergencies (2nd Edition)
Cricothyroidotomy. N Engl J Med. 2008; 358(22): e25. Practice guidelines for management of the difficult airway: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Management of the Difficult Airway. Anesthesiology. 203; 8: 25–270. Scrase I, Woollard M. Needle vs surgical cricothyroidotomy: a short cut to effective ventilation. Anaesthesia. 2006; 6(0): 962–974. , oropharyngeal, nasopharyngeal, Chapter 2 Immediate Management (continued) 17 Anesthesia Emergencies Difficult Mask Ventilation Definition Inability to provide adequate ventilation with a face mask due to inadequate mask seal, excessive gas leak, or excessive resistance to gas flow.
Pathophysiology There are five independent predictors for difficult face mask ventilation: () age >55 years; (2) body mass index (BMI) >26 kg/m2; (3) presence of a beard; (4) edentulous patient; and (5) history of snoring. Immediate Management 18 • Increase FiO2 to 00%. • Administer a jaw thrust. • Ensure that the face mask is correctly sized. • Consider an oral airway or a nasopharyngeal airway. • Consider inserting a supraglottic airway. • Consider two-person ventilation, with one person using both hands to get a good face mask fit and the second person doing the ventilation.
Titrate PEEP to improve oxygenation. • Treat the underlying cause of hypoxemia. • Prepare for endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. • Consider nitric oxide therapy for refractory hypoxemia. • Consider extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory hypoxemia. Risk Factors • Underlying pulmonary disease • Obstructive sleep apnea • Aspiration risk • Use of narcotics • Advanced age • Obesity • Shivering Respiratory Emergencies Chapter 3 DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS • Esophageal intubation • Mechanical disconnect from ventilator or O2 source • Right mainstem intubation • Airway obstruction • Hypoventilation • Atelectasis • Presence of a mucus plug • Bronchospasm • Pneumothorax • Pulmonary embolus • Pulmonary edema • Acute lung injury • Aspiration • Low cardiac output state 49 Anesthesia Emergencies Prevention • Confirm ETT position with capnography and auscultation.