By Traci Ardren
The flood of archaeological paintings in Maya lands has revolutionized our knowing of gender in historical Maya society. The dozen individuals to this quantity use a variety of methodological strategies―archaeology, bioarchaeology, iconography, ethnohistory, epigraphy, ethnography―to tease out the main points of the lives, activities, and identities of girls of Mesoamerica. The chapters, so much dependent upon contemporary fieldwork in primary the United States, learn the function of girls in Maya society, their position within the political hierarchy and lineage buildings, the gendered department of work, and the discrepancy among idealized Mayan womanhood and the day-by-day truth, between different subject matters. In every one case, the complexities and nuances of gender family members is highlighted and the constraints of our wisdom said. those items signify a major boost within the figuring out of Maya socioeconomic, political, and cultural life―and the archaeology of gender―and could be of serious curiosity to students and scholars.
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Extra info for Ancient Maya Women
5. I would like to thank Mark Kenoyer for pointing out the upper body/lower body similarities between the Classic corn deity and the corn plant when I gave an earlier version of this essay as a colloquium for the Department of Anthropology at the University of WisconsinMadison in 2000. 6. These fruit trees represent both mature (wild) forest fruits, such as cohune, and cultivated orchard fruit trees, such as avocado. Sapodilla is a mature forest fruit tree that may have been grown in orchards, at least in colonial times (Diccionario de Motul 1929; Lundell 1933; Marcus 1982; Michelon 1976; Robin 1999: 298).
Ember's crosscultural time allocation study found that women from intensive agricultural societies had significantly more "inside the home" work compared with women in a horticultural context. The women's outside work remained constant in both the intensive and the nonintensive agricultural contexts. Ember (I983) found that the increase in household work included food processing and preparation, an increase in household chores, and the raising of more children. Kramer's (I 999b ) more specific Maya study found similar results with regard to the large family size, a decrease in the total amount of fieldwork, and an increase in domestic tasks such as chopping wood, hauling water, washing, child care, cooking, and sweepmg.
Initially, a farmer builds a low wall across an arroyo. Within a few years, enough soil and debris accumulate behind the wall to warrant the construction of a higher walL This process continues until a tall strong wall supports a large level field (Wilken 1987: 100-01). A well-built terrace wall is curved to deflect the water force. A pitched outside wall holds back the water, whereas the interior wall supports the terrace bed. Slope terrace construction consists of building several parallel earth or low lying walls perpendicular to the hill slope.