By Noel Burton-Roberts
This hugely profitable textual content has lengthy been thought of the traditional creation to the sensible research of English sentence constitution. It covers key strategies comparable to constituency, class and capabilities, and in addition utilises tree diagrams all through to aid the reader visualise the constitution of sentences.
In this fourth version, Analysing Sentences has been completely revised and now contains a fresh better half site with extra actions and workouts for college students and a solution e-book for the in-text routines for professors. the additional actions at the web site provide scholars perform in deciding upon syntactic phenomena in operating textual content and should support to deepen knowing of this subject.
Accessible and transparent, this booklet is the proper textbook for readers coming to this subject for the 1st time. that includes many in-text, end-of-chapter and additional workouts, it's compatible for self-directed examine in addition to to be used as middle interpreting on classes.
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Additional resources for Analysing sentences: an introduction to English syntax
1) Phrase marker (c). This should be clearer after the following discussion. (2) In diagram (a) Romanian modifies a phrase (history teacher) which has teacher (modified by history) as its head, so it is the (history) teacher that is Romanian, not the history. The same goes for old: it modifies a phrase (Romanian history teacher) which has teacher as its head. So, again, it is the teacher who is old. The interpretation can be expressed as ‘the old teacher of history who comes from Romania’. In diagram (b), Romanian is the sister, and hence the modifier, of history.
Giving appropriate analyses of sentences in terms of their constituents depends on how you actually understand those sentences. Constructing the phrase marker of a sentence involves giving an explicit graphic representation of what you intuitively know about that sentence. The meaning of a sentence depends not just on the meaning of its words, but on how those words are structured into phrases, and on the functions of those words and phrases. If you insist that each sequence of words that you want to say forms a constituent has a well-defined meaning and function (is a phrase), that’s a good starting point for analysis.
If we wanted to say that beside a stream formed a phrase in , we’d be forced to represent the complete phrase beside a stream that had dried up as in : 16 ‘PHRASE’ AND ‘CONSTITUENT’ *Phrase-a  Phrase-b Phrase-c beside a stream that had dried up But  is wrong (*): it fails to represent a stream that had dried up as a phrase. The moral is that an element can belong directly only to one phrase at a time. I say ‘directly’ since in , for example, a stream belongs both to PHRASE-b (directly) and to PHRASE-a (indirectly).