By Alexander Kokhanovsky(eds.)
Chapter 1 creation to Airborne Measurements of the Earth surroundings and floor (pages 1–5): Ulrich Schumann, David W. Fahey, Dr. Manfred Wendisch and Dr. Jean?Louis Brenguier
Chapter 2 size of airplane nation and Thermodynamic and Dynamic Variables (pages 7–75): Jens Bange, Marco Esposito, Donald H. Lenschow, Philip R. A. Brown, Volker Dreiling, Andreas Giez, Larry Mahrt, Szymon P. Malinowski, Alfred R. Rodi, Raymond A. Shaw, Holger Siebert, Herman Smit and Martin Zoger
Chapter three In Situ hint gasoline Measurements (pages 77–155): Jim McQuaid, Hans Schlager, Maria Dolores Andres?Hernandez, Stephen Ball, Agnes Borbon, Steve S. Brown, Valery Catoire, Piero Di Carlo, Thomas G. Custer, Marc von Hobe, James Hopkins, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Thomas Rockmann, Anke Roiger, Fred Stroh, Jonathan Williams and Helmut Ziereis
Chapter four In Situ Measurements of Aerosol debris (pages 157–223): Andreas Petzold, Paola Formenti, Darrel Baumgardner, Ulrich Bundke, Hugh Coe, Joachim Curtius, Paul J. DeMott, Richard C. Flagan, Markus Fiebig, James G. Hudson, Jim McQuaid, Andreas Minikin, Gregory C. Roberts and Jian Wang
Chapter five In Situ Measurements of Cloud and Precipitation debris (pages 225–301): Dr. Jean?Louis Brenguier, William D. Bachalo, Patrick Y. Chuang, Biagio M. Esposito, Jacob Fugal, Timothy Garrett, Jean?Francois Gayet, Hermann Gerber, Andy Heymsfield, Dr. Alexander Kokhanovsky, Alexei Korolev, R. Paul Lawson, David C. Rogers, Raymond A. Shaw, Walter Strapp and Manfred Wendisch
Chapter 6 Aerosol and Cloud Particle Sampling (pages 303–341): Martina Kramer, Cynthia Twohy, Markus Hermann, Armin Afchine, Suresh Dhaniyala and Alexei Korolev
Chapter 7 Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (pages 343–411): Dr. Manfred Wendisch, Peter Pilewskie, Birger Bohn, Anthony Bucholtz, Susanne Crewell, Chawn Harlow, Evelyn Jakel, ok. Sebastian Schmidt, Rick Shetter, Jonathan Taylor, David D. Turner and Martin Zoger
Chapter eight Hyperspectral distant Sensing (pages 413–456): Eyal Ben?Dor, Daniel Schlapfer, Antonio J. Plaza and Tim Malthus
Chapter nine LIDAR and RADAR Observations (pages 457–526): Jacques Pelon, Gabor Vali, Gerard Ancellet, Gerhard Ehret, Pierre H. Flamant, Samuel Haimov, Gerald Heymsfield, David Leon, James B. Mead, Andrew L. Pazmany, Alain Protat, Zhien Wang and Mengistu Wolde
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Extra info for Airborne Measurements for Environmental Research: Methods and Instruments
Ps is the measured pressure corrected for the static defect so it is the best estimate of p. Methods for reliable measurement of static air pressure on fast-moving platforms are discussed in this section, with speciﬁc attention to the dependence of pressure measurements on their position on the aircraft; these deviations from background static air pressure are denoted as position errors. Sensor elements and conditioners are not discussed in detail. As far as these parts are mounted in unpressurized bays with widely changing environmental conditions, it is at least important to make sure that the instrument’s signal processing is insensitive to extreme temperatures and pressures.
The details of how altimeter setting is mechanized in an aircraft pressure altimeter can be found in Iribarne and Godson (1981). Both the hypsometric altitude from Eq. 1) and the pressure altitude from Eq. 5) assume that there are no horizontal pressure gradients. Height measurements based on RADAR are not covered here. The sum of RADAR altitude plus the height of the terrain above sea level approximates hypsometric or pressure altitude measurements, but accurate terrain data is not available at very ﬁne scale, and 11 12 2 Measurement of Aircraft State and Thermodynamic and Dynamic Variables surface artifacts such as buildings can complicate that determination except, of course, over the sea.
Spinning electrically suspended gyroscopes (ESGs) offer the highest accuracy and stability, with the rotor supported in vacuum by an electric ﬁeld, thus nearly eliminating errors caused by friction. Currently, there is an upsurge in solid-state sensors that include microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices, ring laser gyros (RLGs), ﬁber-optic gyros (FOGs), and interferometric gyros (IFOGs), which have signiﬁcant cost, size, and weight advantages over spinning devices. Accelerometers are pendulous servo accelerometers, resonant vibrating beam accelerometers (VBAs), or MEMS implementations of either of these.