By J. Frank, M. Radermacher (auth.), James K. Koehler Ph. D. (eds.)
This quantity is a continuation of 2 past books on complex electron microscope concepts. the aim of this sequence has been to supply in intensity analyses of equipment that are thought of to be on the innovative of electron microscopic examine techniques with functions within the organic sciences. The undertaking of the current quantity continues to be that of a resource e-book for the study practitioner or complex scholar, specially one already good versed in uncomplicated electron optical equipment. it's not intended to supply in troductory fabric, nor can this modest quantity wish to hide the whole spectrum of complicated know-how now to be had in electron microscopy. long ago decade, pcs have came upon their manner into many study laboratories because of the large bring up in computing strength and stor age to be had at a modest expense. The ultrastructural quarter has additionally benefited from this growth in a few methods with the intention to be illustrated during this quantity. 1/2 the contributions speak about applied sciences that both at once or not directly make broad use of computing device methods.
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Extra info for Advanced Techniques in Biological Electron Microscopy III
Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Nonperiodic Macromolecular Assemblies 49 The theoretical treatment of a projection series arising from a cylindrical particle lying in random orientations (Sect. 3) lets us expect to find the data ordered in a defined pathway. In a complete single-axis tilt series, each projection has a closely similar neighbor on either side; hence all projections form a closed similarity chain, visible as a closed pathway in the multivariate data analysis (Fig. 19). To help in visualizing this pathway, we developed a nonlinear mapping method (RADERMACHER and FRANK 1985) which in effect untwists the data pattern by flattening it into a two-dimensional map, maintaining interpoint distances as much as possible.
For single-axis tilting, the abscissa represents the maximum tilt angle (assuming equi-spaced tilts), whereas for conical tilting, it represents the cone angle (assuming equi-spaced azimuthal angles). (RADERMACHER and HOPPE 1980) 30 J. FRANK and M. RADERMACHER ment of edges. , without edge enhancement) occurs in the direction that has lower resolution. An additional criterion for the quality of the reconstruction with or without angular limitation is the location and magnitude of side ripples in the point spread function (not visible in Fig.
Here a short list will suffice: a) b) c) d) superposed carbon structure; granularity of the photographic emulsion; stain granularity; "shot" noise (prominent for reduced levels of exposure). , those due to the flexibility of some components) and relate to the same orientation of the molecule on the grid. Under these conditions each image element relating to a point (Xi! Yk) of the molecule's projection exists as a set of N measurements Pn (Xi! Yk) if N is the number of images. As in other observations of an experimental quantity, the accuracy of estimating the sample mean is strongly enhanced if multiple measurements are available: the mean of each pixel is approximated by its average (5) The image P(Xi!