By Alfred Sauvy (auth.)
It is tough for us at the present time to visualize that equivalent academic chance, with which we're so deeply preoccupied, used to be at one time thought of to be if no longer an evil not less than a futile target, and that those that held such an opinion have been thoroughly insincere or even disinterested. For a vertically stratified society equality of schooling needed to be adversarial be reason it is going to disturb an equilibrium as important as that of a construction. within the center a long time in basic terms the Church was once in a position to search for new individuals on the backside of the social ladder, when you consider that ecclesiastical place of work was once now not inherited through delivery. yet efforts during this course have been inevitably very constrained, no matter if merely end result of the fabric hindrances to such an objective. Equality of schooling, in addition to the other form of equality couldn't also be imagined through the aristocracy whose very lifestyles might were threatened. Its preliminary indifference was once by means of lively competition. whilst it turned attainable to formulate the query of the diffusion of schooling, within the seventeenth and 18th centuries, the main itself met with a basic objection. The ruling classification, idle through its very nature, feared that the employees and particularly these at the land may abandon their efficient labours, now felt to be degrading, and swell the ranks of the parasites within the cities.
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Additional resources for Access to Education: New Possibilities
Out of the total number, 64% of boys and 55% of girls fulfilled their ambition to study but they were unequally distributed. Divided into social categories: 68% of the children from the intelligentsia, 60% of working class children and 53% of 29 V. Subkin, D. Konstatinovsky: 0 social 'nom prognozirovanii voblasti obrazovanija. (Forecasting in the education field). Novosibirsk 1969. The Socialist Countries (1945-1970) 34 peasant class children went on to further studies. 31 In another study made by sociologists in Leningrad 32 the conclusions reached in the Siberian study are fully confirmed.
All these measures were made indispensable by the transformation of the secondary school and above all by its expansion to cover the whole population. By 1955 the disproportion between the number of those holding secondary certificates and the number of places available in higher education establishments had become scandalous. No doubt such a gap still exists today, but about ten years ago it aroused public opinion and deep discontent in the population, and perhaps even explicit protests. I t is in this context that we must understand the words of Kruschev commenting on the 1958 reforms: "In higher education establishments we can, under present conditions, take about 450 000 students each year, approximately half of these on a part-time basis.
Following in father's footsteps We have seen so far that a child's chances of entering university vary in accordance with whether the child comes from a family belonging to the intelligentsia or to a non-intellectual class. There is also another factor: the new phenomenon of the inherited job. It is well known, writes M. Markus, that intellectual parents use every available means to influence their children to take up an intellectual career also or at least to remain with the category of intellectual workers.