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By Alan Cruse

This easy-to-use advisor illuminates key strategies and phrases in semantics and pragmatics and the research of that means because it is conveyed via language.

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Extra info for A Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics

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Is not considered elliptical. emergent meaning encoding idiom see under blending (conceptual) see under idiom encyclopaedic knowledge see under dictionary meaning vs encyclopaedic meaning entailment A logical relation between propositions. A proposition P entails a proposition Q, if and only if the truth of Q follows inescapably from the truth of P. For 793 02 pages 001-202 31/3/06 10:19 Page 55 A GLOSSARY OF SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS 55 instance, if P is ‘Pete killed the wasp’ and Q is ‘The wasp died’, then if P is true, Q must also be true, and if Q is false, P must also be false.

Complementaries have a contradictory relation. So, for example, if something is not dead it must be alive, and if it is not alive then it must be dead, and it is anomalous to say of an organism that it is neither dead nor alive. This establishes dead and alive as complementaries (compare antonyms (2), which have a contrary relation). The complementary relation- 793 02 pages 001-202 31/3/06 10:19 Page 29 A GLOSSARY OF SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS 29 ship between dead and alive only appears if what they are applied to belongs to the appropriate domain, in this case, the domain of organisms.

It includes what can be perceived in the immediate context, together with knowledge of the language, general world knowledge, shared attitudes, and so on. common nouns comparative see under proper nouns see under degrees of comparison competence vs performance This distinction, made by Chomsky, is related to the distinction proposed by Saussure between langue and parole. As a first approximation, competence can be equated to langue, except that it is conceived as the neural representation of the system as it exists in the mind of an ideal speaker-hearer.

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